Shultz Group Publications

96.Rules for Magnetic Exchange in Azulene-Bridged Biradicals: Quo Vadis?,” Hewitt, P.; Shultz, D. A.; Kirk, M. L. J. Org. Chem. 2021, 86, 15577–15587.
95.Magnetic Exchange Coupling Through the Nonalternant Cyclopentadienyl π-System of Ferrocene,” Hewitt, P.; Shultz, D. A.; Kirk, M. L. Org. Lett. 2021, 23, 8235–8239.
94.Chromophore-Radical Excited State Antiferromagnetic Exchange Controls the Sign of Photoinduced Ground State Spin Polarization,” Kirk, M. L.; Shultz, D. A.; Hewitt, P.; Stasiw, D. E.; Chen, J.; van der Est, A. Chem. Sci. 2021, 12, 13704-13710.
93.Metal Ion Control of Photoinduced Electron Spin Polarization in Electronic Ground States,” Kirk, M. L.; Shultz, D. A.; Chen, J.; Hewitt, P.; Daley, D.; Paudel, S.; van der Est, A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2021, 143, 10519–10523.
92.Controlled light and temperature induced valence tautomerism in a Cobalt-o-Dioxolene complex,” Leroy, L.; Francisco, T.; Shepherd, H.; Warren, M.; Saunders, L.; Shultz, D. A.; Raithby, P.; Pinheiro, C. Inorg. Chem. 2021, 60, 8665–8671.
91.In Search of Stable, High-Spin Polymers,” Hewitt, P.; Shultz, D. A. Appl. Magn. Reson.  2020, 11, 1331-1341 (Invited Contribution in Celebration of Prof. Dante Gatteschi’s 75th Birthday).
90.Transferrable Property Relationships Between Magnetic Exchange Coupling and Molecular Conductance,” Kirk, M.;Dangi, R.; Habel-Rodriguez, D.; Yang, J.; Shultz, D. A.; Zhang, J. Chem. Sci. 2020, 11, 11425-11434.
89.Exploiting Chemistry and Molecular Systems for Quantum Information Science,” Wasielewski, M. R.; Forbes, M. D. E.; Frank, N. L.; Kowalski, K.; Scholes, G. D.; Yuen-Zhou, J.; Baldo, M. A.; Freedman, D. E.; Goldsmith, R. H.; Goodson III, T.; Kirk, M. L.; McCusker, J. K.; Ogilvie, J. P.; Shultz, D. A.; Stoll, S.; Whaley, K. B.  Nature Reviews Chemistry 2020, 4, 490-504.
88.Spectroscopic Signatures of Resonance Inhibition Reveal Differences in Donor-Bridge and Bridge-Acceptor Couplings,” Shultz, D. A.;* Kirk, M. L.;* Zhang, J.; Stasiw, D. E.; Wang, G.; Yang, J.; Habel-Rodriguez, D.; Stein, B. W.; Sommer, R. D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2020, 142, 4916-4924.
87.Long-Range Spin Dependent Delocalization Promoted by the Pseudo Jahn-Teller Effect,” Stein, B.W.; Dickie,D. A.; Nedungadi, S.; Brook, D. J. R.; Shultz, D. A.; Kirk, M. L. J. Chem. Phys. 2019, 151, 201103 (invited).
86.Wavefunction Control of Charge-Separated Excited State Lifetimes,” Tichnell, C. R.; Daley, D. R.; Stein, B. W.; Shultz, D. A.; Kirk, M. L.; Danilov, E. O. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2019, 141, 3986-3992.
85.Ground State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Chemical Shifts Predict Charge-Separated Excited State Lifetimes,” Yang, J.; Kersi, D.; Richers, C. P.; Giles, L. J.; Dangi, R.; Stein, B. W.; Feng, C.; Tichnell, C. R.; Shultz, D. A.; Kirk, M. L. Inorg. Chem. 2018, 57, 13470–13476.
84.Excited State Magnetic Exchange Interactions Enable Large Spin Polarization Effects,” Stein, B.; Tichnell, C.; Chen, J.; Shultz, D. A.; Kirk, M. L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140, 2221-2228.
83. “Hard X‐ray-Induced Valence Tautomeric Interconversion in Cobalt‐o‐Dioxolene Complexes,” Francisco, T. M.; Gee, W. J.; Shepherd, H. J.; Warren, M. R.; Shultz, D. A.; Raithby, P. R.; Pinheiro, C. B. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2017, 8, 4774-4778.
82.Heterospin Biradicals Provide Insight into Molecular Conductance and Rectification,” Kirk, M. L.; Shultz, D. A.; Zhang, J.; Dangi, R.; Ingersol, L.; Yang, J.; Finney, N. S.; Sommer, R. D.; Wojtas, L. Chem. Sci. 2017, 8, 5408-5415
81.The Influence of Radical Bridges on Electron Spin Coupling,” Steenbock, T.; Shultz, D. A.; Kirk, M. L.; Herrmann, C. J. Phys. Chem. A 2017, 121, 216-225.
80. “Towards Controlling the Solid State Valence Tautomeric Interconversion Character by Solvation,” Ribeiro, M. A.; Stasiw, D. E.; Pattison, P.; Raithby, P. R.; Shultz, D. A.; Pinheiro, C. B. Cryst. Growth Des. 2016, 16, 2385-2393.
79.  “Determining the Conformational Landscape of σ and π Coupling Using para-Phenylene and “Aviram–Ratner” Bridges,” Stasiw, D. E.; Zhang, J.; Wang, G.; Dangi, R.; Stein, B. W.; Shultz, D. A.; Kirk, M. L.; Wojtas, L.; Sommer, R. D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 9222–9225.
78. “Synthesis, Characterization, and Photophysical Studies of an Iron(III) Catecholate–Nitronylnitroxide Spin-Crossover Complex,” Tichnell, C. R.; Shultz, D. A.; Popescu, C. V.; Sokirniy, I.; Boyle, P. D., Inorg. Chem. 2015, 54, 4466–4474.

77. “Towards Controlling the Valence Tautomer Interconversion Character by Solvation,” Ribeiro, M.; Stasiw, D. E.; Shultz, D. A.; Pinheiro, C. Acta Crystallogr. A 2014, 70, C1252-C1252.

76.Ligand Control of Donor-Acceptor Excited State Lifetimes,” Yang, J.; Kersi, D.; Giles, L.; Stein, B.; Feng, C.; Tichnell, C. R.; Shultz, D. A.; Kirk, M. L., Inorg. Chem. 201453, 4791.

75.Superexchange Contributions to Distance Dependence of Electron Transfer/Transport: Exchange- and Electronic Coupling in Oligo(para-Phenylene)- and Oligo(2,5-Thiophene)-Bridged Donor-Bridge-Acceptor Biradical Complexes”, Kirk, M. L.; Shultz, D. A.; Stasiw, D. E.; Lewis, G. F.; Wang, G.; Brannen, C. L.; Sommer, R. D.; Boyle, P. D. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 17144.

74.Iron (II) Spin Crossover Films on Au(111) : Scanning Probe Microscopy and Photoelectron Spectroscopy”, Pronschinske, A.; Bruce, R.; Lewis, G.; Chen, Y.; Calzolari, A.; Buongiorno-Nardelli, M.; Shultz, D. A.; You, W.; Dougherty, D. B. Chem. Commun., 2013, 49, 10446.
ga 73.Electronic and Exchange Coupling in a Cross-Conjugated D−B−A Biradical: Mechanistic Implications for Quantum Interference Effects”, Kirk, M. L.; Shultz, D. A.; Stasiw, D. E.; Habel-Rodriguez, D.; Stein, B.; Boyle, P. D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 14713.

72.Modification of Molecular Spin Crossover in Ultra-thin Films”, Pronschinske, A.; Chen, Y.; Lewis, G.; Calzolari, A.; Shultz, D. A.; Buongiorno Nardelli, M.; Dougherty, D. Nano Lett. 2013, 13, 1429.

71.Transition Metal Complexes of Donor-Acceptor Biradicals,” Kirk, M. L.; Shultz, D. A. Coord. Chem. Rev. 2013, 257, 218. 70.A Theoretical Assessment of Cobalt bis(dioxolene) Valence Tautomeric Complexes for Molecular Spintronics Applications: from Molecules to Polymers,” Calzolari, A.; Chen, Y.; Dougherty, D. B.; Shultz, D. A.; Lewis, G. F.; Buongiorno Nardelli, M. J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116, 13141.

69. Spectroscopic studies of bridge contributions to electronic coupling in a donor-bridge-acceptor biradical system,” Kirk, M. L.; Shultz, D. A.; Depperman, E. C.; Habel-Rodriguez, D.; Schmidt, R. D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 7812.

68. Linear Free Energy Relationships in Semiquinone Species and Their Mn(II) and Cu(II) Complexes,” Sloop, J. C.; Shultz, D. A.; Beikmohamadi, M. J. Phys. Org. Chem. 2011, 25, 101-109.

67. Nitronyl Nitroxide Radicals as Organic Memory Elements with Both n- and p-Type Properties,” Lee, J.; Lee, E.; Kim, S.; Bang, G. S.; Shultz, D. A.; Schmidt, R. D.; Forbes, M. D. E.; Lee, H. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 4415-4418.picture1 66. Hyperfine Interaction, Spin Polarization, and Spin Delocalization as Probes of Donor-Bridge-Acceptor Interactions in Exchange Coupled Biradicals,” Kirk, M. L.; Shultz, D. A.; Habel-Rodriguez, D.; Schmidt, R. D.; Sullivan, U. J. Phys. Chem. B 2010, 114, 14712-14716.

65. Goldilocks Effect in Magnetic Bistability: Remote Substituent Modulation and Lattice Control of Photo-Induced Valence Tautomerism and Light-Induced Thermal Hysteresis,” Schmidt, R. D.; Shultz, D. A.; Martin, J. D.; Boyle, P. D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 6261-6273.

64. Magnetic Bistability in a Cobalt bis(Dioxolene) Complex: Long-Lived Photoinduced Valence Tautomerism,” Shultz, D. A. Schmidt, R. D.; Martin, J. D. Inorg. Chem. 2010, 49, 3162-3168.


63. Ferromagnetic Nanoscale Electron Correlation Promoted by Organic Spin-Dependent Delocalization,” Kirk, M. L.; Shultz, D. A.; Schmidt, R. D.; Habel-Rodriguez, D.; Hyoyoung Lee, H.; Lee, J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 18304-18313.

62. Substituent Effects on Exchange Coupling: 5-Aryl-Substituted Semiquinones and Their Complexes with Mn(II) and Cu(II),” Shultz, D. A.; Sloop, J. C.; Coote, T.-A.; Beikmohammadi, M.; Kampf, J.; Boyle, P. D. Inorg. Chem. 2007, 46, 273-277.

61. Donor-Acceptor Biradicals as Ground State Analogues of Photoinduced Charge Separated States,” Kirk, M. L.; Depperman, E. C.; Shultz, D. A.; Brannen, C. L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 1937-1943.

60.Influence of Ligand Geometry in Bimetallic Ytterbocene Complexes of Bridging Bis(bipyridyl) Ligands,” Carlson, C. N.; Kuehl, C. J.; Ogallo, L.; Shultz, D. A.; Thompson, J. D.; Kirk, M. L. Martin, R. L.; John, K. D.; Morris, D. E. Organometallics, 2007, 26, 4234–4242.

59. Design, Synthesis and Properties of Conformationally Fixed Semiquinone Monoradical Species,” Shultz, D. A.; Sloop, J. C.; Washington, G. J. Org. Chem. 2006, 71, 9104-9113.

58. Ligand Design Modulates Photoinduced Properties of Cobalt-dioxolene Valence Tautomers,” Beni, A.; Dei, A.; Shultz, D. A.; Sorace, L. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2006, 428, 400-404.

57. Testing Bridge-Mediated Differences in Dinuclear Valence Tautomeric Behavior,” Bin-Salamon, S.; Brewer, S. H.; Depperman, E. C.; Franzen, S.; Kampf, J. W.; Kirk, M. L.; Kumar, R. K.; Lappi, S.; Peariso, K.; Preuss, K. E.; Shultz, D. A. Inorg. Chem. 2006; 45; 4461-4467.

56. Electron Spin-Spin Exchange Coupling Mediated by the Porphyrin Pi System,” Shultz, D. A.; Mussari, C. P.; Ramanathan, K. K.; Kampf, J. W. Inorg. Chem. 2006, 45, 5752-5759.

55. Valence Tautomerization and Exchange Coupling in a Cobalt-Nitronylnitroxide-Semiquinone Complex,” Shultz, D. A.; Krishna Kumar, R.; Bin-Salamon, S.; Kirk, M. L. Polyhedron 2005, 24, 2876-2879.


54. Supramolecular Control of Valence-Tautomeric Equilibrium on Nanometer-Scale Gold Clusters,” Bin-Salamon, S.; Brewer, S.; Franzen, S.; Feldheim, D. L.; Lappi, S.; Shultz, D. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 5328-5329.

53. Mechanisms of Exchange Modulation in Trimethylenemethane-Type Biradicals: The Roles of Conformation and Spin Density,” Shultz, D. A.; Fico, R. M., Jr.; Lee, H.; Kampf, J. W.; Kirschbaum, K.; Pinkerton, A. A.; Boyle, P. D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125 , 15426-15432.

52. Trends in Exchange Coupling for Trimethylenemethane-Type Bis(Semiquinone) Biradicals and Correlation of Magnetic Exchange with Mixed Valency for Cross-Conjugated Systems,” Shultz, D. A.; Fico, R. M., Jr.; Bodnar, S. H.; Kumar, R. K.; Vostrikova, K. E.; Kampf, J. W.; Boyle, P. D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 11761-11771.

51. A New Paradigm for Design of High-Spin Organic Molecules: The Mechanism of Spin-dependent Delocalization in Exchange-Coupled Mixed-Valent Organic Species,” Franzen, S.; Shultz, D. A.  J. Phys. Chem. A 2003, 107, 4292-4299.

50. The Donor-Acceptor Contributions to Exchange Coupling in HeteroSpin Biradicals,” Shultz, D. A. Polyhedron 2003, 22, 2423-2426 (ICMM, invited).1-s2-0-s0277538703002171-loc1

49. Trends in Metal-Biradical Exchange Interaction for First-Row MII(Nitronyl Nitroxide-Semiquinone) Complexes,” Shultz, D. A.; Vostrikova, K. E.; Bodnar, S. H.; Koo, H.-J.; Whangbo, M.-H.; Kirk, M. L.; Depperman, E. C.; Kampf, J. W. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 1607-1617.

48. The Singlet-Triplet Gap in Triplet Ground-State Biradicals Is Modulated by Substituent Effects,”  Shultz, D. A.; Bodnar, S. H.; Lee, H.; Kampf, J. W.; Incarvito, C. D.; Rheingold, A. L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 10054-10061.

47. Structure-Property Relationships in New Semiquinone-Type Ligands – Past, Present, and Future Research Efforts,” Shultz, D.A. Comments Inorg. Chem. 2002, 23, 1-21 (invited).

46. High-Spin Metal Complexes Containing a Ferromagnetically-Coupled Tris(Semiquinone) Ligand,” Caneschi, A.; Dei, A.; Mussari, C.P.; Shultz, D.A. Inorg. Chem. 2002, 41, 1086-1092.

45. A bis-bidentate dioxolene ligand induces thermal hysteresis in valence tautomerism interconversion processes,” Bodnar, S.H.; Caneschi, A.; Dei, A.; Shultz, D.A.; Sorace, L. Chem. Commun. 2001, 2150-2151.

44. Observation of a Hysteretic Phase Transition in a Crystalline Dinitroxide Biradical That Leads to Magnetic Bistability,” Shultz,D.A.; Fico, R.M., Jr.; Boyle, P.D.; Kampf, J.W. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 10403-10404.

43. Structure-Property Relationships in Building Blocks for Open-Shell Molecules and Materials,” Shultz, D.A. Synth. Met. 2001, 122, 495-500 (J.S. Miller ACS Award Symposium, invited).1-s2-0-s037967790100323x-fx1

42. Structure-Property Relationships in Cross-Conjugated, High-Spin, Dinuclear Ligands: Building Blocks for Open-Shell Molecules and Materials,” Shultz, D.A. Polyhedron 2001, 20, 1627-1631 (ICMM, invited).


41. One-Electron Reduction of an Antiferromagnetically-Coupled Triradical Yields a Mixed-Valent Biradical with Enhanced Ferromagnetic Coupling,” Shultz, D.A.; Kumar, R.K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 6431-6432.

40. Spin Robustness of a New Hybrid Inorganic-Organic High-Spin Molecule,” Depperman, E.; Bodnar, S.H.; Vostrikova, K.E.; Shultz, D.A.; Kirk, M.L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 3133-3134.

39. Charge Distribution in bis-Dioxolene Radical Metal Complexes. Synthesis and DFT Characterization of Dinuclear Co(III) and Cr(III) Complexes with a Mixed Valent, S = 1/2 Semiquinone-Catecholate Ligand,” Bencini, A.; Daul, C.A.; Dei, A.; Mariotti, F.; Lee, H.; Shultz, D.A.; and Sorace, L. Inorg. Chem. 2001, 40, 1582-1590.

38. Molecular Structures of Carbonyl-Linked Bis(Dioxolene) Complexes: Can a Carbonyl Group Act as an Effective Ferromagnetic Coupler?,” Shultz, D.A.; Bodnar, S.H.; Kumar, R.K.; Lee, H.; Kampf, J.W. Inorg. Chem. 2001, 40, 546-549.

37. Molecular Structure of and Exchange Coupling in a Bis(Semiquinone) Complex,” Shultz, D.A.; Bodnar, S.H.; Kampf, J.W. Chem. Commun.2001, 93-94.b008037n-u1

36. A Ferromagnetically Coupled Bis(Semiquinone) Ligand Enforces High-Spin Ground States in Bis-Metal Complexes,” Caneschi, A.; Dei, A.; Hyoyoung Lee, H.; Shultz, D.A.; Sorace, L. Inorg. Chem. 2001, 40, 408-411.

35. Synthesis and Structure of a Complex Having a Quartet Ground State with Three Entirely Different Spin Carriers: Nitronyl Nitroxide, ortho-Semiquinone, and Cu(II),” Shultz, D.A.; Bodnar, S.H.; Vostrikova, K.E.; Kampf, J.W. Inorg. Chem. 2000, 39, 6091-6093.

34. Synthesis of Nanometer-sized Hollow Polymer Capsules from Alkanethiol-coated Gold Particles,” Wu, M.; O’Neill, S.A.; Brousseau, L.C.; McConnell, W.; Shultz, D.A.; Daniel L. Feldheim, D.L.; Linderman, R.J. Chem. Commun. 2000, 775-776.b001019g-s2

33. Preparation and EPR Spectroscopic Investigation of Conjugated Oligomers Containing Semiquinone Repeat Units,” Shultz, D.A.; Hollomon, M.G. Chem. Mater. 2000, 12, 580-585.

32. “Electronic Properties of Bisporphyrin Biradical Dications,” Shultz, D.A.; Lee, H.; Gwaltney, K.P.; Sandberg, K.A. Mol. Cryst. and Liq. Cryst.1999, 334, 459-467.

31. Both an Oxidation/Reduction Sequence and Deprotonation of a Unique Paramagnetic Ligand Lead to a Mixed-Valent Complex,” Shultz, D.A.; Bodnar, S.H.; Kumar, R.K.; Kampf, J.W. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 10664-10665.

30. Cross-Conjugated Bis(Porphryin)s: Synthesis, Electrochemical Behavior, Mixed Valency, and Biradical Dication Formation,” Shultz, D.A.* Lee, H.; Kumar, R.K.; Gwaltney, K.P. J. Org. Chem. 1999, 64, 9124-9136.

29. Synthesis and Characterization of a Planarized, Trimethylenemethane-Type Bis(Semiquinone) Biradical,” Shultz, D.A.;* Lee, H.; Fico, R.M., Jr. Tetrahedron 1999, 55, 12079-12086.

28. Structure-Property Relationships in Trimethylenemethane-Type Biradicals. II. Synthesis and EPR Spectral Characterization of Dinitroxide Biradicals,” Shultz, D.A.; Boal, A.K.; Lee, H.; Farmer, G.T. J. Org. Chem. 1999, 64, 4386-4396.

27. Paramagnetic Zinc(II) Complexes of a Bis(Catechol): Dependence of Product Spin-State on Tautomerization of the Bis(Catechol) Ligand,” Shultz, D.A.; Bodnar, S.H. Inorg. Chem. 1999, 38, 591-594.

26. Au Particles as Templates for the Synthesis of Hollow Conductive Polymer Nanocapsules,” Marinakos, S.M.; Shultz D.A.; Feldheim, D.L. Adv. Mater. 1999, 11, 34-37.

25. A Semiempirical Computational Assessment of Porphyrins as Building Blocks for Molecule-Based Magnets – Spin-Spin Coupling in Radical-substituted Metalloporphyrins,” Shultz, D.A.; Sandberg, K.A. J. Phys. Org. Chem. 1999, 12, 10-18.

24. Synthesis and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectral Characterization of Bis(Semiquinone)s,” Shultz, D.A.; Boal, A.K.; Farmer, G.T. J. Org. Chem. 1998, 63, 9462-9469.

23. Oxidation of a Bis[Zn(II) porphyrin] Yields a Nondisjoint, Exchange-Coupled Pi Dication-Biradical,” Shultz, D.A.; Lee, H.; Gwaltney, K.P. J. Org. Chem. 1998, 63, 7584-7585.

22. pH-Gated Single Electron Tunneling in Chemically Modified Au Nanoclusters,” Brousseau, L.; Zhao, Q.; Shultz, D.A.; Feldheim, D.L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998, 120, 7645-7646.

21. Synthesis and Characterization of a Nitroxide-Semiquinone Biradical,” Shultz, D.A.; Farmer, G.T. J. Org. Chem. 1998, 63, 6254-6257.

20. Electrochemical and Spectroelectrochemical Study of a Bis-arylgalvinol-substituted Alkyldisulfide Monolayer and Mixed Monolayers on Polycrystalline Gold,” Sagara, T.;* Midorikawa, T.; Shultz, D.A.;* Zhao, Q. Langmuir 1998, 14, 3682-3690.

19. A Modified Procedure for Sonogashira Couplings: Synthesis and Characterization of a Bisporphyrin, 1,1-Bis-[5′-ethynyl-10′,15′,20′-trimesityl- (Zn)-porphyrinyl]methylenecyclohexane,” Shultz, D.A.; Gwaltney, K.P.; Lee, H. J. Org. Chem. 1998, 63, 4034-4038.

18. An Improved Method for Estimating ZFS Parameters for Delocalized Biradicals,” Shultz, D.A.; Sandberg, K.A. J. Phys. Org. Chem. 1998, 11, 819-824.

17. The Effect of Aliphatic Amine Bases on the Aggregation of Alkali Metal Salts of 3,5-Di- tert -butylsemiquinone (3,5-DBSQ),” Shultz, D.A.; Boal, A.K.; Campbell, N.P. Inorg. Chem. 1998, 37, 1540-1543.

16. Synthesis and Characterization of Phenylnitroxide-Substituted Metalloporphyrins,” Shultz, D.A.; Gwaltney, K.P.; Lee, H. J. Org. Chem. 1998, 63, 769-774.

15.The Biradical, Bis-(3,5-di- tert-butyl-4-phenoxyl)methyleneadamantane, Exhibits Matrix-Dependent EPR Spectra Suggesting Rotamer Bistability with Differential Exchange Coupling,” Shultz, D.A.; Boal, A.K.; Farmer, G.T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 3846-3847.

14. Preparation of Paramagnetic Ligands for Coordination-Complexes and Networks With Interesting Magnetic Properties,” Shultz, D.A.; Boal, A.K.; Driscoll, D.J.; Farmer, G.T.; Hollomon, M.G.; Kitchin, J.R.; Miller, D.B.; Tew, G.N. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 1997, 305, 303-310.